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4th International Conference on Hypertension & Healthcare, will be organized around the theme “Control Hypertension: Add life to Longevity”
Hypertension 2018 is comprised of keynote and speakers sessions on latest cutting edge research designed to offer comprehensive global discussions that address current issues in Hypertension 2018
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Hypertension, additionally called as high vital sign or blood vessel cardiovascular disease could be a chronic medical condition during which the blood pressure within the arteries is elevated. This session mainly covers the different types of hypertension and their assessment. Isolated systolic hypertension, resistant hypertension are all recognized hypertension sorts with specific diagnostic criteria. A sphygmomanometer, is a device used to measure blood pressure, composed of an inflatable cuff to collapse and then release the artery under the cuff in a controlled manner, and a mercury.
Globally, the overall prevalence of raised blood pressure in adults aged 25 and over was around 40% in 2010. Because of population growth and ageing, the number of people with uncontrolled hypertension ranges from 600 million in 1980 to nearly 1 billion in 2010.The national Million Hearts initiative endeavors to increase the number of persons whose hypertension is under control, by 10 million, as part of its goal to prevent 1 million heart attacks and strokes by the year of 2018.
- Track 2-1Secondary hypertension
- Track 2-2Hypertension rheumatoid arthritis
- Track 2-3Pediatric hypertension
- Track 2-4oncology and blood pressure
- Track 2-5genetic factors and life style of high blood pressure
- Track 2-6Hypertension and obesity
- Track 2-7Diabetes and dermatology
Renovascular hypertension (RVHT) reflects the causal relation between anatomically evident arterial occlusive disease and elevated blood pressure. The coexistence of renal arterial vascular disease and hypertension roughly defines this type of nonessential hypertension. More specific diagnoses are made retrospectively when hypertension improves after intravascular intervention. At present, no sufficiently accurate, noninvasive, radiologic, or serologic screening test is available that, if negative, completely excludes the presence of renal artery stenosis (RAS).
This category includes the following sub topics: kidney failure, nephrotoxicity, Iga nephropathy, Alport syndrome, minimal change disease, kidney and anemia, inherited kidney diseases, medullary sponge kidney, advances in nephrology, renal histopathology, kidney stones, nephronophthisis, nephroptotic, clinical nephrology-general aspects, infection and renal disease.
- Track 3-1Renal disease
- Track 3-2Assessment for reno vascular hypertension
- Track 3-3Prevalence of epidemiology
- Track 3-4Kidney transplantation
- Track 3-5Nephrology therapies
- Track 3-6Evidence based methodologies for renal diagnosis and management
- Track 3-7Clinical administration abilities
- Track 3-8Hereditary factors and endocrine issue
- Track 3-9Care of dialysis and transplantation
Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a rise of blood pressure within the artery, vein, or respiratory organ capillaries, resulting in shortness of breath, dizziness, fainting, leg swelling and different symptoms. This type of hypertension that affects the arteries in the lungs and the right side of your heart, then it begins when tiny arteries in your lungs, called pulmonary arteries, and capillaries become narrowed, blocked or destroyed. This makes it harder for blood to flow through your lungs, and raises pressure within your lungs' arteries.
As the pressure builds, your heart's lower right chamber must work harder to pump blood through your lungs, eventually causing your cardiac muscle to weaken and eventually fail. Pulmonary hypertension is a serious illness that becomes progressively worse and is sometimes fatal. Pulmonary hypertension worsens over time and is life-threatening because the pressure in a patient's pulmonary arteries rises to dangerously high levels, putting a strain on the heart. There is no cure for pulmonary hypertension, but several medications are available to treat symptoms. The various complications to related to pulmonary hypertension are congestive heart failure, blood clotting, liver disease, Lupus, Rheumatoid Arthritis, chronic bronchitis, HIV Associated Pulmonary Hypertension, and PH in Association with Sickle Cell Disease.
- Track 4-1Classification of pulmonary hypertension
- Track 4-2Sign, symptoms and causes of PH
- Track 4-3Genetics and molecular pathology
- Track 4-4Pulmonary embolism
- Track 4-5Pulmonary embolism
- Track 4-6Diagnosis by echocardiography
- Track 4-7Treatment and therapies
- Track 4-8Asthma and allergy
- Track 4-9Prevalence of pulmonary hypertension
Gestational hypertension or pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH) is the development of new hypertension in a pregnant woman after 20 weeks’ gestation without the presence of protein in the urine or other signs of preeclampsia and eclampsia. Gestational hypertension is usually defined as having a blood pressure higher than 140/90 measured on two separate occasions, more than 6 hours apart, without the presence of protein in the urine and diagnosed after 20 weeks of gestation. There is no specific treatment, but is monitored closely to rapidly identify pre-eclampsia and its life-threatening complications.
Drug treatment options are limited, as many antihypertensive may negatively affect the fetus. Methyldopa, hydralazine, and labetalol are most commonly used for severe pregnancy hypertension. The fetus is at increased risk for a variety of life-threatening conditions, including pulmonary hypoplasia (immature lungs). If the dangerous complications appear after the fetus has reached a point of viability, even though still immature, then an early delivery may be warranted to save the lives of both mother and baby. An appropriate plan for labor and delivery includes selection of a hospital with provisions for advanced life support of newborn babies.
During gestational hypertension, a woman must be offered an integrated package of care, covering admission to hospital, treatment, measurement of blood pressure, testing for proteinuria and blood tests.
Gestational hypertension in a future pregnancy ranges from about 1 in 8 (13%) pregnancies to about 1 in 2 (53%) pregnancies.
- Track 5-1Risk factors for gestational hypertension
- Track 5-2Pre-eclampsia and eclampsia
- Track 5-3Pathogenesis of pre-eclampsia
- Track 5-4Genetic changes and stress incontinence.
- Track 5-5 Surgical and non-surgical conditions
- Track 5-6Restorative and administration of medications
- Track 5-7Drug treatment of gestational hypertension
Hypertension is the most prevalent and powerful modifiable risk factor for stroke. Persons with hypertension are about 3 or 4 times more likely to have a stroke. Hypertension remains the single most important modifiable risk factor for stroke, and the impact of hypertension and nine other risk factors together account for 90% of all strokes. The two major types of stroke include ischemic stroke (caused by blood clots), which accounts for 85% of strokes, and hemorrhagic stroke (bleeding in the brain), which accounts for 15% of strokes.
Prevention of stroke is a major public health priority, but needs to be based on a clear understanding of the key preventable causes of stroke. Therefore, although the highest BP levels predict the highest relative risk of stroke, the conceptual pendulum has swung in the direction of the continuum of absolute BP levels and somewhat away from the construct of “hypertension”. Furthermore, as discussed below, recent evidence points to the fact that mediators of hypertension, such as Angiotensin II, may influence stroke risk independently of Blood pressure elevation.
- Track 6-1Idiopathic intracranial hypertension
- Track 6-2Brain RAS on blood pressure control
- Track 6-3Hypertensive encephalopathy
- Track 6-4Cerebrovascular dysfunction
- Track 6-5Stroke epidemiology and prevention
- Track 6-6Hemorrhagic stroke
- Track 6-7Myocardial infarction
Diabetes mellitus (DM), commonly referred to as diabetes, is a group of metabolic diseases in which there are high blood sugar levels over a prolonged period. Serious long-term complications include cardiovascular disease, stroke, chronic kidney failure, foot ulcers, and damage to the eyes.
Hypertension and diabetes are two of the leading risk factors for atherosclerosis and its complications, including heart attacks and strokes. There is substantial overlap between diabetes and hypertension, reflecting substantial overlap in their etiology and disease mechanisms. Cardiovascular risk factor prevalence study, only 42% of people with diabetes had normal blood pressure and only 56% of people with hypertension had normal glucose tolerance.
Diabetes causes hyperinsulinemia and raises the risk of hypertension. This condition increases the amount of sodium that the body absorbs. It also promotes the stimulation of the sympathetic nervous system. This is thought to cause changes in blood vessel structure, which affects the function of the heart and blood pressure.
- Track 7-1Risk factors for diabetes
- Track 7-2Treatment and therapies.
- Track 7-3Destruction of the islet β-cell
- Track 7-4Advanced treatments for diabetes
- Track 7-5Herbal and alternative remedies
- Track 7-6Early management of obesity
- Track 7-7Diabetes and dermatology
Heart disease describes a range of conditions that affect the heart. Diseases under the heart includes blood vessel diseases, such as coronary artery disease; heart rhythm problems (arrhythmias); and heart defects you're born with (congenital heart defects), among others. Heart disease term is often used interchangeably with the cardiovascular disease. It generally refers to conditions that involve narrowed or blocked blood vessels that can lead to a heart attack, chest pain (angina) or stroke. Other heart conditions, such as those that affect your heart's muscle, valves or rhythm, also are considered forms of heart disease. Many forms of heart disease can be prevented or treated with healthy lifestyle choices.
Heart disease is the study of the effects of drugs on the entire cardiovascular system, which includes the heart and blood vessels. The various complications to related to diabetes are Cerebrovascular disease, Inflammatory, Hypertensive heart disease, Ischemic, Rheumatic heart disease, Acute heart failure and Heart transplantation.
- Track 8-1Hypertension and tachycardia
- Track 8-2Structural heart disease
- Track 8-3Transient ischemic attack
- Track 8-4Risk factor for fatal and nonfatal cardiovascular disease
- Track 8-5Cardiovascular medicine research
- Track 8-6New theories of diagnosis of the blood vessels
- Track 8-7Cardiometabolic diseases management
- Track 8-8Cardiac rehabilitation
- Track 8-9Cardiac catheterizations, and electrophysiology studies
The evaluation of patients with resistant hypertension should be directed toward confirming true treatment resistance; identification of causes contributing to treatment resistance, including secondary causes of hypertension; and documentation of target-organ damage. Accurate assessment of treatment adherence and use of good blood pressure measurement technique is required to exclude pseudo resistance. In most cases, treatment resistance is multifactorial in etiology with obesity, excessive dietary sodium intake, obstructive sleep apnea, and CKD being particularly common factors.
Target-organ damage such as retinopathy, CKD, and LVH supports a diagnosis of poorly controlled hypertension and in the case of CKD will influence treatment in terms of classes of agents selected as well as establishing a blood pressure goal of <130/80 mm Hg. Most patients who present with elevated blood pressure (BP) will have essential (idiopathic) hypertension; extensive laboratory evaluation for secondary causes in these patients is low-yield and cost-prohibitive. However, identification of a secondary cause may often lead to a cure of the elevated BP or to a decrease in the number and/or doses of antihypertensive agents and a reduction in the long-term cardiovascular risks of hypertension.
- Track 9-1ELISA for AAAR and cardiac myosin
- Track 9-2Laboratory tests for the investigation
- Track 9-3Endocrine or hormonal regulation of BP
- Track 9-4Diagnostic imaging modalities
- Track 9-5 Interventional cardiology
- Track 9-6 Teleradiology
High blood pressure has several causative factors like age, race, case history and obesity, not being physically active, overwhelming tobacco, an excessive amount of salt (sodium) in diet, deficient Vitamin D in diet, drinking an excessive amount of alcohol, stress and bound chronic conditions. Though high pressure is commonest in adults, youngsters are also in danger, too. For a few youngsters, high pressure is caused by issues with the kidneys or heart except for a growing variety of youngsters, poor fashion habits, like an unhealthy diet, fleshiness, physiological condition and lack of exercise contributes to high pressure.
Certain diseases and medications are specific causes of high pressure. Cardiovascular disease represents the leading reason for morbidity and mortality in Western countries, and hypertension-related vessel events have an effect on regarding 37 million individuals annually, worldwide. During this perspective, hypertensive patients are at hyperbolic risk to expertise vessel events throughout life-long period, and treatment of high pressure represents one among the foremost effective ways to cut back cardiovascular risk.
- Track 10-1Obesity and weight management
- Track 10-2Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs
- Track 10-3Not being physically active and using tobacco.
- Track 10-4Controllable risk factors
- Track 10-5Uncontrollable risk factors
- Track 10-6Medical risk factors
- Track 10-7Global cardiovascular risk assessment
- Track 10-8Multiple risk management
Hypertension, or high blood pressure, is the leading risk factor associated with death in the world but is largely asymptomatic and often undetected in patients. Hypertension is typically asymptomatic and only detected through opportunistic screening. Once hypertension has been diagnosed, further tests should be conducted, including urine testing, blood tests, an eye examination and a 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG). Primary hypertension, in which no specific cause is found, affects 95% of patients. Blood pressure is expressed in terms of systolic blood pressure (higher reading), which reflects the blood pressure when the heart is contracted (systole), and diastolic blood pressure (lower reading), which reflects the blood pressure during relaxation (diastole).
Hypertension can be diagnosed when either systolic pressure, diastolic pressure, or both are raised. Blood pressure is determined by the cardiac output balanced against systemic vascular resistance. The process of maintaining blood pressure is complex, and involves numerous physiological mechanisms, including arterial baroreceptors, the renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system, atrial natriuretic peptide, endothelin’s, and mineralocorticoid and glucocorticoid steroids.
- Track 11-1Renin angiotensin aldosterone system
- Track 11-2Sodium /potassium ratio hypothesis of essential hypertension
- Track 11-3Echocardiogram
- Track 11-4Endoscopy
- Track 11-5Polysomnogram
- Track 11-6Endothelial dysfunction
- Track 11-7Vascular damage in hypertension
There is no specific treatment, but is monitored closely to rapidly identify pre-eclampsia and its life-threatening complications. Drug treatment options are limited, as many antihypertensive may negatively affect the fetus. Methyldopa, hydralazine, and labetalol are most commonly used for severe pregnancy hypertension.
Drug treatments are available too for Hypertension. Optimal blood pressure control plays an essential role in the therapeutic management of RVHT. However, aggressive control of other risk factors for atherosclerosis also is crucial. Cessation of smoking is important for its positive impact on the cardiovascular risk profile in patients with hypertension. Similarly, antidyslipidemic therapy for those patients with hyperlipidemia likely provides benefit in atherosclerotic RVHT.
- Track 12-1Diuretics
- Track 12-2Calcium channel blockers
- Track 12-3ACE Inhibitors
- Track 12-4Angiotensin II receptor antagonists
- Track 12-5Vasodilators
- Track 12-6Benzodiazepines
Hypertension Reduction Therapy Devices externally stimulate carotid baroreceptors, which are located within the carotid sinus in the neck, using our hand-held therapy device with our patented cold tip. Cold temperature stimulation of the baroreceptors, at a precise temperature and duration, results in modulating the autonomic nervous system, stimulating the parasympathetic nervous system, and lowering the sympathetic drive, causing vasodilation and lowering of the heart rate. The sum of these actions results in immediate lowering of blood pressure.
The fundamental goal of treatment should be the prevention of the important endpoints of hypertension, such as heart attack, stroke and heart failure. Patient age, associated clinical conditions and end-organ damage also play a part in determining dosage and type of medication administered. The several classes of antihypertensive differ in side effect profiles, ability to prevent endpoints, and cost. The choice of more expensive agents, where cheaper ones would be equally effective, may have negative impacts on national healthcare budgets. As of 2018, the best available evidence favors the thiazide diuretics as the first-line treatment of choice for high blood pressure when drugs are necessary.
- Track 13-1Blood pressure measuring devices
- Track 13-2Central iliac arterio-venous anastomosis
- Track 13-3Renal denervation
- Track 13-4Carotid body ablation
- Track 13-5Baroreflex activation therapy
- Track 13-6Substantial placebo effect of device therapy
- Track 13-7Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring
- Track 13-8Transdermal therapy of hypertension
- Track 13-9Baroreceptor activation therapy
- Track 13-10Novel non-pharmacological approaches
- Track 13-11Renal replacement therapy
Changes in single nutrients—such as lowering sodium—have been the primary focus on dietary interventions to prevent and treat hypertension. However, weight reduction, adopting the DASH eating pattern (which emphasizes fruits, vegetables, low-fat dairy foods, whole grains, poultry, fish and nuts and is low in saturated fat, total fat and cholesterol) and engaging in physical activity have potentially the same or greater effect on managing hypertension as sodium reduction.
The prevalence of hypertension is high and increasing worldwide. Drug therapy is effective, but for both "prehypertensive" and treated hypertensive patients, lifestyle changes are also important. Dietary modification is a key part of these changes, although skepticism about the role of diet in determining blood pressure has slowed implementation of the available guidelines. However, there is now a large body of evidence supporting a role for dietary salt, potassium, alcohol, and body mass in determining blood pressure.
Studies such as PREMIER have shown that salt restriction (<6 g/d), alcohol moderation (<2U/d in men and <1U/d in women), weight loss (if BMI>25), exercise, and a DASH (Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension) diet (supplying 20-30 m.mol/d of potassium) can achieve decreases in systolic blood pressure of approximately 10 to 15 mm Hg when applied together. Of the dietary changes, salt intake remains the most amenable to change. But we must further reduce salt in processed food if it is to be part of a wider strategy to lower blood pressure in the general population. Nevertheless, the message to patients must be that dietary changes made within a concerted alteration in lifestyle can have a very significant impact on their blood pressure.
Health professionals can assist clients to combine two or more lifestyle modifications to achieve even greater results.
- Track 14-1Smoking cessation
- Track 14-2Salt sensitivity and resistance
- Track 14-3Dietary potassium
- Track 14-4Lowering blood pressure
- Track 14-5Maintenance therapy and reassessment
- Track 14-6Resources for promoting lifestyle management to patients
- Track 14-7Incorporating patient-centered lifestyle modification
Nursing service administration is a coordinated activity, which provides all the facilities necessary for the rendering of nursing service to clients. Nursing service administration is the system of activities directed toward the nursing care of clients, and includes Nursing Leadership and Management the establishment of over-all goals and policies within the aims of the health agency and provision of organization, personnel, and facilities to accomplish this goals in the most effective and economical manner through cooperative efforts of all members of the staff, coordinating the service with other departments of the institution.
Nursing service administration is the provision for continuous individual, group and community service, including whatever is necessary. In addressing the factors, which determine health, and to bring them back to self-directive activity towards their own health. The subsidiary objectives of this role are the professional activities of administration, including human relations, communications, teaching, research, and personal development, designed to further the primary objective-the optimum nursing care of patients. In this lecture note management and administration are used interchangeably. Threshold for Initiation of Treatment and Target Values, Assessment and Development of a Lifestyle Treatment plans are the major criteria for nursing management.
- Track 15-1Opportunity to assess BP detection
- Track 15-2Monitoring and follow up with the health care team
- Track 15-3Impact of lifestyle therapies on BP in hypertensive
- Track 15-4Assessment and development of a lifestyle treatment plan
- Track 15-5Threshold for Initiation of treatment and target values
- Track 15-6Recommended technique for measuring blood pressure
- Track 15-7Patient preparation and posture
- Track 15-8Frequent error in clinic-based BP assessment
- Track 15-9Importance of achieving and maintaining target
- Track 15-10Educate clients on their target BP
- Track 15-11Medications and adherence
Treating high blood pressure can take a multi-pronged approach including diet changes, medication, and exercise. Hypertension, or high blood pressure, is dangerous because it can lead to strokes, heart attacks, heart failure, or kidney disease. The goal of hypertension treatment is to lower high blood pressure and protect important organs, like the brain, heart, and kidneys from damage. Treatment for hypertension has been associated with reductions in stroke (reduced an average of 35%-40%), heart attack (20%-25%), and heart failure (more than 50%), according to research.
Because hypertension rarely causes specific symptoms, it is not identified until an individual’s blood pressure is measured by a physician or it causes a catastrophic complication such as stroke or heart attack. Accurate diagnosis by blood pressure measurement is essential. Many advanced treatment approaches and medications have been established for the treatment and management of hypertension that may describe this session.
- Track 16-1Trans catheter renal denervation
- Track 16-2Neprilysin /neutral endopeptidase (NEP) inhibition
- Track 16-3Non-viral gene therapy
- Track 16-4Stem cell therapy
- Track 16-5Invasive therapy
To fully appreciate the complexity and challenges in interpreting hypertension trials, it is informative to review their evolution. The prospective, randomized, clinical trial has been the foundation for evaluating the effectiveness of blood pressure-lowering drugs. The duration of clinical trials rarely exceeds five years, and trials focus on so-called “hard end points”—notably, all-cause mortality and/or cause specific morbidity and mortality due to CVD, usually coronary heart disease (CHD) and/or stroke, but more recently heart failure (HF) as well.
The early clinical trials had the advantage of being able to compare “active therapy” with placebo and usually included patients with more severe hypertension, as compared with modern trials. Consequently, they generated more end points and had sufficient power to be conducted on a smaller scale than modern trials high blood pressure is often called a "silent disease" because people usually don't know they have it; there may be no outward symptoms or a sign, so monitoring the blood pressure is critical. Treating high blood pressure can take a multi-pronged approach including diet changes, medication, and exercise. Hypertension treatment comes in many forms -- from lifestyle changes to medication.
- Track 17-1Integrating lifestyle advice into clinical management
- Track 17-2Clinical practice guidelines for the management of overweight and obesity
- Track 17-3Data management and statistical analysis and data validation processes
- Track 17-4Meta-analysis of blood pressure-lowering drug trials
- Track 17-5Reporting blood pressure parameters in clinical trails
- Track 17-6Surrogate or intermediate disease markers
- Track 17-7Assessment of overall cardiovascular risk in hypertensive patients
- Track 17-8Primary biliary cirrhosis
The mission and education of the cardiologists training is that to reduce the burden of cardiovascular disease in Europe, education is an important mean to achieve its mission. At ESC, education is the transfer of knowledge together with assessment to ascertain the breadth of knowledge and skills has been retained.
In general cardiology and sub-specialties, all educational activities are mapped out on curricula. Increasingly, educational activities are organized into educational tracks leading to certification and recertification programmers (in sub-specialties of cardiology currently). Ultimately, the aim is to cater for ESC members’ lifelong learning. All ESC educational programmers are submitted to the EBAC for accreditation for development of future educational programmes.
- Track 18-1National health and medical council
- Track 18-2Patient lifestyle modification
- Track 18-3Counseling and assessment with hypertension
- Track 18-4Monitoring antihypertensive drug treatment
- Track 18-5Absolute CVD risk assessment
- Track 18-6Clinical tuberculosis & epidemiology research
- Track 18-7Chronic respiratory diseases research
- Track 18-8Cardiac monitoring with emergency department